H.Hara 1969 H.Li 1984, 1986 A.Takatajan 1983
Paris taxonomy genus Paris genus Paris, subgenus Paris genus Paris
rhizome slender, creeping short and thick (Axiparis) *or* long and slender (Paris) slender, creeping
sepals 3-5, green

ovary roundish

4-5 locules

few ovules

4-10 locules with axilary placentation
roundish, without an apical transverse rim
stigma slender
fruit indehiscent berry indehiscent berry indehiscent berry, poison, blue-black
chromosome number 2n=10,15,20

with or without imperfect aril without sarcotesta (aril)
taxa P. quadrifolia, P. verticillata, P. incompleta, P. tetraphylla
section Axiparis
stamens 2-3x
seeds - imperfect aril

P. vanioti, P. rugosa, P. forestii, P. axialis, P. dulongensis

section Paris
stamens 2x
seeds - no aril

P.incompleta, P.tetraphylla, P.quadrifolia, P.bashanensis, P.verticillata

Kinugasa taxonomy genus Paris, subgenus Kinugasa genus Paris, subgenus Paris, section Kinugasa genus Kinugasa
rhizome very thick short and very thick
sepals 7-10 white, petaloid 7-10 white
ovary roundish with disk at the top

6-10 locules

many ovules

4-10 locules with axilary placentation
angular, truncate and depressed apically
stigma slender
fruit indehiscent berry indehiscent berry indehiscent berry; edible, dark putple
chromosome number 2n=40

without aril without sarcotesta (aril)
2x sepals
Daiswa taxonomy genus Paris, subgenus Daiswa genus Paris, subgenus Daiswa genus Daiswa
rhizome thick thick thick or very thick
sepals 3-9

ovary angular

numerous ovules

unilocular with >4 parietal placentas
angular, truncate with apical transverse rim
stigma short, thick
fruit dehiscent capsule dehiscent capsule fleshy loculicidal capsule
seeds enclosed by a scarlet juicy coat enclosed by juicy red aril scarlet and juicy sarcotesta
chromosome number 2n=10,20

taxa P. delavayi, P. polyphylla, P. fargesii, P. thibetica, P. appendiculata, P. stenophylla, P. marmorata, P. brachystemon, P. chinensis
Section Daiswa
stamens 2-3x free connective

P. mairei, P. delavayi, P. polyphylla, P. luquanensis, P. daliensis, P. undulatis, P. vietnamensis, P. cronquistii

Section Dunniana
stamens 4-6x

P. dunniana

Section Marmorata
stamens 2x no connective leaves spotted

P. marmorata, P. luquanensis

Section Fargesiana
stamens 2x


Section Thibetica
stamens 2x long connective aril


leaves 5-7 nerved

D. birmanica, D. chinensis, D. fargesii, D. dunniana, D. cronquistii, D. yunnanensis, D. hainensis

leaves 3-nerved

D. pubescens, D. thibetica, D. forrestii, D. lancifolia, D. violacea, D. bockiana, D. polyphylla, D. delavayi

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restored: 28 May 2004