Trillium Bibliography

compiled by G. Carlton Denton and Barbara Durham        Aug. 1998


Adams, Alan B. 1975. A Study of Trillium cuneatum and Trillium luteum. Thesis, Univ. Tenn.

Abrams, L. 1944. Illustrated flora of the Pacific States, 2nd Ed. (1950-1955)., Stanford Univ. Press, 1: 450-451.

Ahles, H. E. 1974. Trillium in Eastern North America. Bul. R.H.S., Lily Grp., 56-67.

Alexander, E. J. 1955. Trillium recurvatum. Addisoia, 23: 5-6.

Amano, Y. 1944. The metamorphosis of floral organs in Trillium amabile Miyabe et Tatewaki. J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido U., 5: 109-120.

Anderson, E. B. 1963. Lily Group discussion. R.H.S.Lily Yrbook, 100-107.

Anderson, E. B.; Synge, P. 1962. Introduction to Trilliums. R.H.S. Lily Yrbook, 61-63.

Anderson Roger C. 1994. Height of white-flowered trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) as an index of deer browsing intensity. Ecological Applications, 4:1 104-109.

Anderson, W. A. 1934. Notes on the flora of Tennessee: The genus Trillium. Rhodora, 36: 119-129.

Andrews, F.M. 1921. Trillium nivale. Proc. Indiana Acad.Sci., 31-86.

Andrews, F.M. 1914. Stomata of Trillium nivale. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 24: 209-211.

Asbury, S. S.; Murrell, J. T. 1974. The anthocyanin pigments of sessile flowered Trillium. (Abstract) Jour. Tenn. Acad. Sci., 49: 48.

Asbury, S. S. 1973. The anthocyanin pigments of sessile flowered trillium (Liliaceae). Unpubl.M.A. thesis. George Peabody College for teachers, Nashville

Ayensu, E.; Defipps, R. A. 1978. Trillium persistens, T. pusillum, T. texanum. Endangered and threatened plants of the U.S.A., XV: 113-114. Washington DC.

Bailey, L. H. 1954. Trillium. Manual of cultivated Plants , Rev. Ed. 236-237.

Bailey, P. C. 1958. Differential chromosome segments in eight species of Trillium. Bul. Torrey Bot. Club, 85: 201-214.

Bailey, P. C. 1954. A further study of the chromosome morphology of some species of Trillium. Bul. Torrey Bot. Club, 81: 68-75.

Bailey, P. C. 1952. Differential reactivity in six species of Trillium. Bul. Torrey Bot. Club, 79 451-458.

Bailey, P. C. 1952. A study of the chromosome morphology of some species of Trillium. Rhodora, 78: 324-330.

Bailey, P. C. 1949. Differential chromosome segments in Trillium erectum L. Ph.D.Vanderbilt University.

Bailey, P. C. 1949. Differential chromosome segments in Trillium erectum L. Bul. Torrey Bot. Club, 76: 319-336.

Baldwin, J. T.; Bernice, M.; Mikula, S.; Mikula, B. 1949. Chromosomes of Trillium pusillum v. virginianum Fern. Rhodora 51: 368-??.

Barksdale, L. 1938. The pedicellate species of Trillium found in the Southern Appalachians. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 54: 271-296.

Barrett, S.C.H.; Helenurm, K. 1987. The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs. I. Breeding systems and pollination. Canadian Journal of Botany, 65:10 .2036-2046.

Barton, L. V. 1944. Some seeds showing special dormancy. Cont. Boyce Thompson Institute, 13: 259-271.

Bass, J. L. 1977. The erectum complex of Trillium L. (Lilliaceae) in the Southern Appalachians: comparative quantative morpology. M.S. Vanderbilt Univ.

Batson, W. T. 1964. Wild flowers in South Carolina. U. South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC.

Bayer, Randall J.; La Duke, John C.; Crawford, Daniel J. 1987. Isozyme variation in Trillium nivale (Liliaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany, 65:11 2250-4.

Beattie, A. J.; Culver, D. C. 1981. The guild of myrmecochores in the herbaceous flora of West Virginia forests. Ecology 62: 107-115.

Beaven, G. F.; Oosting, H. J. 1939. Pocomoke Swamp: A study of a cypress swamp on the Eastern shore of Maryland. (T.pusillum as T.sessile) Bull. Torr. Bot. Club. 66: 367-389

Bell, A. D. 1974. Rhizome organization in relation to vegetative spread in Medeola virginiana. J.Arnold Arboretum, 55:3 458-468.

Belyayev A. 1995. Intrapopulation and individual polymorphism of heterochromatin segments in Trillium camschatcenses Ker-gawl. Caryologia, 48:2 157-164 .

Berg, R.Y. 1962. Morphology and Taxonomic Position of Mediola, Liliaceae. Skrift Norske Vid-Akad in Oslo Mat. Nature K1. 4: 9-56.

Berg, R.Y. 1962. Comparitive Embryology of the Liliaceae - Scoliopus, Trillium, Paris and Mediola. Skrift Norske Vid-Akad in Oslo Mat. Nature. K1. 3: 7-64.

Berg, R.Y. 1959. Seed dispersal, Morphology and Taxonomic position of Scoliopus, Liliaceae. Skrift Norske Vid-Akad in Oslo Mat. Nature K1. 2: 7-56.

Berg, R. Y. 1958. Seed dispersal, morphology and phylogeny of Trillium. Skr.Nor.Vidensk.Akad.Oslo, Mat.-Naturvidensk. K1, 1: 1-36.

Bergstrom, B H.; Murrell, J. T. 1973. A Comparative Study of Temperature- Induced Differential Staining Patterns in Trillium sessile L. Tenn Acad Sci J, 48:3 87-90.

Beschel, R. E. 1970. Toadshade and Virginian Bluebells in their habitat near Kingston. Blue Bill, 17: 23-27.

Bierzychudek, P. 1982. Life histories and demography of shade tolerant temperate forest herbs: a review. New Phytologist. 90: 757-776.

Blain, Auray. 1946. The sexula reproduction of Trillium. Trillium erectum L., Trillium grandiflorum (Michx) Salisb. Ph.D. McGill University (Canada).

Bloom, A. 1976. Trilliums, harbingers of spring [varieties]. Garden, 101:1 44-46.

Bodkin, N.L.; Reveal, J.I. 1983. A new population of Trillium pusillum var. monticulum Bodkin and Reveal (Liliaceae) Virginia. Castanea, 48:2 155-157.

Bodkin, N.L.; Reveal, J.L. 1982. A new variety of Trillium pusillum (Liliaceae) from the Virginias (Virginia, West Virginia). Brittonia, 34:2 141-143.

Boothroyd, E. R.; Mark, N M. 1970. Mitotic cycles in root tip cells of two species of trillium (Liliaceae). Can J Genet Cytol, 12:4) 750-758.

Boothroyd, E. R. 1953. The reaction of trillium pollen-tube chromosomes to cold treatment during mitosis. Jour. Hered., 44: 2-9.

Boothroyd, E. Roger 1943. Differential reactivity in the chromosomes of trillium species Ph.D. McGill University (Canada).

Borglum, Dana 1996. Green double Trillium. Horticulture Dec 96: 8.

Bowin, B. 1953. Two new variations in Trillium. Rhodora, 55: 101-102.

Boyd, L. 1932. Monocotylous seedlings. Trans.Bot.Soc.Edin., XXXI:1 92-99.

Brandt, Robert Percy 1916. Notes on the California Species of Trillium L. Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley.

Braselton, J P. 1973. The Ultrastructure of Cold-modified Segments of Metaphase Chromosomes. [Trillium grandiflorum]. Protoplasma, 76:1 97-101.

Bratton S P. 1994. The lower Susquehanna River gorge and floodplain (USA) as a riparian refugium for vernal, forest-floor herbs. Conservation Biology, 8:4 1069-1077.

Brickell, C.; Sharman, F. 1986. The vanishing garden: a conservation guide to garden plants. Timber Press, Portland, OR. in association with the Royal Hort. Soc., Great Britain, John Murray, Eng. Ed.

Britcher, H. W. 1902. Variation in Trillium grandiflorum Salisb. Bul./Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, 86 170-196.

Britton, N. L.; Brown, H. A. (1943 and later eds). An illustrated flora of the Northern United States and adjacent Canada., Hafner Pub.Co

Brown, E. T., Jr. 1961. Some new or otherwise interesting reports of Liliaceae from the southeastern states. Rhodora, 63: 304-311.

Broyles, S.B.; Sherman-Broyles, S.L.; Rogati, P. 1997. Evidence of outcrossing in Trillium erectum and Trillium grandiflorium (Liliaceae). J. of Heredity, 88:4 325-329.

Brundrett, M.; Kendrick, B. 1990. The roots and mycorrhizas of herbaceous woodlands plants. I. Quantitative aspects of morphology. The New phytologist, 114:3 457-468.

Brundrett, M.; Kendrick, B. 1990. The roots and mycorrhizas of herbaceous woodland plants. II. Structural aspects of morphology. The New phytologist, 114:3 469-479.

Buhl, T. 1976. (Trillium I Danske Haver.) Trillium in the Danish Garden [varieties], Petersen. H., HAVEN, 76:4 156.

Burns, J. S. 1970. Comparative physiological ecology of two species of trillium in a secondary growth forest in northeaster Illinois. M.S. U. Illinois at Chicago Circle.

Buswell, C. H. 1963. Trilliums. Some notes on opening phases of an amateurÆs continuing study. Mich. Bot., 2: 6-12.

Cabe, P.R. 1995. The Trillium pusillum Michaux (Liliaceae) complex in Virginia. I. Morphological investigations. Castanea : J. So. Appalachian Bot. Club, 60:1 1-14.

Cabe, P.R.; Werth, C. 1995. The Trillium pusillum Michaux (Liliaceae) complex in Virginia. II. Isozyme evidence. Castanea : J. So. Appalachian Bot. Club, 60:1 15-29.

Case, F. W.; Case, Roberta B. 1997. Trilliums. Timber Press, Portland, Ore.

Case, F. W. 1994. Trillium grandiflorum: Doubles, forms, and diseases. Bul. Am. Rock Gdn.Soc., 52:1 45-49.

Case F. W.; Case, R. B 1993. Trillium erectum and its hybrids. Bul. Am. Rock Gdn. Soc., 51:3 163-168.

Case, F. W. 1991. The American Trilliums. A Century of Alpines. 6th Int'nl Rock Garden Plant Conf., Warwick U., England.



Case, F. W. 1988. Trilliums. Fine Gardening Mag., 2: 36-37.

Case, F. W. 1983. Eastern American Trilliums. Bull. Arbor. Waasland, 6:2 36-50.

Case, F. W. 1983. Eastern American Trilliums. Bull. Arbor. Waasland, 6:1 29-37.

Case, F. W., Jr. 1982. Eastern American Trilliums. Bull. Arbor. Waasland, 5:2 13-22.

Case, F. W., Jr. 1982. Eastern American Trilliums. Bull. Arbor. Waasland, 5:1 19-27.

Case, F. W. 1982. Snow Trillium, Trillium nivale, in Michigan. Mich. Bot, 21:1 39-44.

Case, F. W. 1981. The Eastern American Trilliums. Bul. Am. Rock Gdn. Soc., 39:2 53-67.

Case, F. W. 1981. The Eastern American Trilliums. Bul. Am. Rock Gdn. Soc., 39:3 108-22.

Case, F. W. 1981. Eastern American Trilliums. Bull. Arbor. Waasland, 4:2 37-52.

Case, F. W. 1975. The Eastern Trilliums [Trillium]. Calif Hort. J, 36:3 93-103.

Case, F. W.; Burrows, G. L. 1962. The genus Trillium in Michigan. Some problems of distribution and taxonomy. Papers Mich. Acad.Sci., 47: 189-200.

Catesby, M. 1730. Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands., London (at Author's expense including several reprints) 1: 45, t. 45.

Cave, M. S. 1966. The chromosomes of Scoliopus. Liliaceae. Madrono, 18:7 211-213.

Cayouette, R.; Cayouette, J. 1984. Variations de la coloration des petales chez le Trillium cernuum L. v. cernuum (Lilliaceae) Nat. Canad., 111:3 325-327. French, Eng. Sum.

Chatterjee, A. 1973. Cytological investigation on certain genera of Lilliaceae Folia. Biologica, 21: 199-208.

Cherepanov, S K.; Grif, V G.; Ketrits, L M. 1977. Karyosystematic Studies of Trillium rhombifolium Kom. (Liliaceae) from Southern Primorye Territory. BOT ZH, 62:11 1639-1647.

Chinnappa, C.C. 1982. Cytology of some variegated forms of Trillium grandiflorum (Liliaceae). Caryologia, 35:1 23-32.

Chinnappa, C.C.; Morton, J.K. 1978. Heterochromatic banding patterns in ... Trillium grandiflorum, Trillium erectum. Canadian J. Genetics & Cytology, 20:4 475-481.

Chmielewski, J. G.; Ringius, G. S. 1987. Biomass-allocation patterns in population of Trillium erectum and T. grandiflorum in southern Ontario. Canadian J. Botany, 65:8 1671-5.

Christian, P. 1980. Trilliums. Bul. Alp. Gdn. Soc., 48: 61-66, 139-143, 189-202, 339-342.

Clute, W. N. 1906(8). A remarkable change of colour in trillium. (T. erectum). Am. Bot., 14: 33-35.

Collier, G. 1994. The genus Trillium: a neglected companion. J. Am. Rhododendron Soc., 48:2 83-84.

Correll, D. S.; Johnson, M. C. 1970. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas. Texas Res. Foun., Renner, Texas.

Cox, R.M. 1985. In vitro and in vivo effects of acidity and trace elements on pollen function, Biotechnology and ecology of pollen : proc. Int. Conf. Biotechnology and Ecology of Pollen, 9-11 July 1985. U.Mass., Amherst, MA, ed: D.L. Mulcahy, G.B. Mulcahy and E. Ottaviano.

Curtis, W. C. 1966. Trilliums. Horticulture, 44: 40-41.

Darlington, C. D.; Shaw, G. W. 1959. Parallel polymorphism in the heterochromatin in Trillium species. Heredity, 13: 89-121.

Darlington, C. D.; Wylie, A. P. 1955. Chromosome Atlas of Flowering Plants., George Allen & Unwin, London.

Darlington, C. D.; La Cour, L. F. 1940. Nucleic acid starvation of chromosomes in Trillium J. Genetics, 40: 185-213.

Darlington, C. D.; La Cour, L. F. 1938. Differential reactivity of chromosomes. Annals Botany, 2: 615-625.

David, M. B.; Struchtemeyer, R.A. 1982. Vegetation response to sewage effluent disposal on a hardwood forest. Canadian J. Forest Research, 12:4 1013-1017.

Davis, M.A. 1981. The effect of pollinators, predators, and energy constraints on the floral ecology and evolution of Trillium erectum Forests, New Hampshire. Oecologia, 48:3 400-406.

Deane, W. 1910. Teratology in Trillium. Rhodora, 12: 163-166.

Deane, W. 1908. Some teratological forms of Trillium undulatum. Rhodora, 10: 21-24.

Deane,W. 1908. More teratological forms of Trillium undulatum. Rhodora, 10: 214-216.

DeMars, B.G.; Boerner, R.E.J. 1997. Foliar phosphorus and nitrogen resorption in three woodland herbs of contrasting phenology. Castanea : J. So. Appalachian Bot. Club, 62:1 43-54.

DeMars, B.G.; Boerner, R.E.J. 1995. Mycorrhizal dynamics of three woodland herbs of contrasting phenology along topographic gradients. Am. J. Botany, 82:11 1426-1431.

DeMars, B.G. 1995. Nutrient dynamics and resorption in four understory woodland plants and notes on the mycorrhizal status of some typically nonmycorrhizal plants (Cardamine concatenata, Lonicera maackii, Trillium flexipes, Smilacina racemosa). Ph.D. Ohio State Univ.

De Vries, B. 1973. Nodding Trilliums in eastern Saskatchewan. Blue Jay, 31:4 214-217.

Deno, Norman C. 1998. Second Supplement to Seed Germination, Theory and Practice, Priv. Pub., 139 Lenor Drive, State College, PA 16801.

Deno, Norman C. 1996. First Supplement to the Second Ed. of Seed Germination, Theory and Practice, Priv. Pub., 139 Lenor Drive, State College, PA 16801.

Deno, Norman C. 1993. Seed Germination, Theory and Practice, 2nd Ed, Priv. Pub., 139 Lenor Drive, State College, PA 16801.

Deno, Norman C. 1991. Seed Germination, Theory and Practice, 1st Ed, Priv. Pub., 139 Lenor Drive, State College, PA 16801.

Denton, Carl 1995. Trilliums. Northern Gardener, 49:2 12-13.

Deschner, E. E. 1954. The relationship between chromosome fragmentation and rejoining induced by thermal neutron and x-irradiation of Trillium erectum L.. Ph.D. Fordham Univ.

Donovan, I. E. M. 1995. Aseptic Germination of Trillium erectum and Trillium grandiflorum Seed. Comb. Proc. Plant Prop. Soc., 45 466.

Dryden, Kath 1990. Trillium rivale Wats. 'Winifred Murray'. Bul. A.G.S., 58:4 347.

Duncan, W H.; Garst, J F.; Neece, G A. 1971. Trillium persistens (Liliaceae), a new pedicellate-flowered species from northeastern Georgia and N. Carolina. Rhodora, 73: 794 244-248.

Duncan, W. H.; Calhoun, U. T. 1962. Data on sessile flowered Trillium (liliaceae) Castanae, 27: 165-173.

Dusek, E. 1988. Trillium antics. Bul. Am. Rock Gdn. Soc., 46:3 177-?

Dusek, E. 1982. The care and feeding of Trilliums and other matters. Bul. Am. Rock.Gdn. Soc., 40:1 13-17.

Dusek, E. 1980. Trilliums Western Style. Bul. Amer.Rock.Gdn. Soc., 38:4 157-168.

Dusek, E. 1979. Trillium albidum. Alpine Gard. Club of B.C., 22:3.

Dusek, E. 1978. Trillium ovatum. Bul. Alp. Gdn. Soc., 46:1 51-54.

Dyer, A. F. 1964. Heterochromatin in American and Japanese species of Trillium.1. Fusion chromocentres and the distribution of H-segments. Cytologia, 29: 155-170.

Dyer, A. F. 1964. Heterochromatin in American and Japanese species of Trillium.2. The behaviour of H-segments. Cytologia, 29: 171-190.

Dyer, A. F. 1964. Heterochromatin in American and Japanese species of Trillium.3. Chiasma frequency and distribution and the effect on it of heterochromatin. Cytologia, 29: 263-279.

Dyer, A.F. 1963. Endosperm development after controlled pollination within and between species of Trillium and Paris. Chromosoma, 14; 549-567.

Eames, A.J.; Wiegand, K. M. 1923. Variations in Trillium cernuum. Rhodora, 25: 189-191.

Edgren, Margery 1993. Vegetative propagation of Trillium chloropetalum. Bul. Amer. Rock Gdn. Soc., 51:3: 169-173.

Elliott, Stephen T. 1817 (and later reprints). A Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia., printed for the author by J. Hoff.

Elliott, Stephen T. 1971. A Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia., Hafner, New York.

Ellis, David J. 1998. Trilliums. American Gardener, 77:1 54-55.

Endo, T.; Ihara, M. 1985. Notes on extractant-dependent leaf peroxidase and malate dehydrogenase zymograms from twenty plant species. Jap. J. Breed., 35 340-345.

Erichsen-Brown, C. 1979. Use of plants for the past 500 years. Aurora, Ont.: Breezy Creeks Press. xxvi + Pg 510.

Evans, A. 1982. Liliaceae at the Royal Bot.Gdns. Edinburgh Bul. Royal Hort. Soc. Lily Group.

Everett, T. H. 1982. The New York Botanical Garden Illustrated Encyclopedia of Horticulture, Garland Publishing Co., 10:Ste-Zy., New York

Farwell, O.A. 1918. The Trillium grandiflorum group. Rep. Mich. Acad. Sci.Arts Lett., 20: 155-159.

Fernald, M. L. 1944. Overlooked species, transfers and novelties in the Flora of Eastern North America. Rhodora, 46: 14-16, pl.810-811).

Fernald, M. L. 1943. Virginian Botanizing under Restrictions. The Dwarf Trillium of Southeastern Virginia. Rhodora, 45: 364-365, 396-398.

Fernald, M. L. 1943. Trillium undulatum f. cleavelandicum (Wood) Fern. Rhodora, 45: 517-518.

Ferreniea, V. 1977. Comments on North American trilliums for the Garden. R.H.S. Lily Yearbook, 41-51.

Ferreniea, V. 1976. Trillium Portraits. Alpines of the Americas: Report of the first interim. Int. Rock Garden Plant Co

Foerster R. 1997. Trilliums. Shenandoah, 47:3 24-25.

Franklin, J. F.; Dyrness, C. T. 1969. Vegetation of Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Serv. Res. Paper, PNW-80.

Freeman, J. D. 1995. The genus Trillium in the Southeast. Newslett.Alabama Wildflower Soc., 50(Aug.Suppl.): 1-9.

Freeman, J. D.; Heineke, T.E. 1987. Trillium recurvatum Beck f. esepalum f. nov., a new sepalless form of the prairie wakerobin. Rhodora, 89:857 17-20.

Freeman, J. D. 1975. Revision of Trillium subgenus phyllantherum (Liliaceae) [new taxa]. BRITTONIA, 27:1 1-62.

Freeman, J D. 1969. A revisionary study of sessile-flowered Trillium l.(liliaceae). Ph.D. Vanderbilt Univ.

Freeman, J D. 1969. Trillium gracile (Liliaceae), a new sessile-flowered species from eastern Texas and Louisiana. SIDA CONTRIB BOT, 3:5 289-292.

Fretz, T. A. 1983. Trilliums. American Horticulturist, 62 (Apr.) 16-17.

Friesner, R. C. 1929. The genus Trillium in Indiana. Butler U. Bot. Stud., 1: 29-40.

Fukuda, I.; Freeman, J. D.; Ito, M. 1996. Trillium channellii, sp.nov. in Japan. T.camschatcense Ker Gawlert, correct name for the asiatic Diploid Trillium. Novon: J. Bot. Nomenclature, 6:2 164-171.

Fukuda, I. 1987. Mode of speciation in trillium chromosome evolution and differentiation of the reproductive system. Am. J. Bot., 74: 641-642.

Fukuda, I.; Ito, M. 1986. A study on abnormal forms of Trillium kamtschaticum. 3. A natural population at Shirakabadai. Sc. Rep. Kushiro City Mus., 301: 3-8.

Fukuda, I. 1984. Chromosome banding and biosystematics. In: Plant Biosystematics, 97-116. Academic Press, Canada.

Fukuda, I.; Matsumoto, I.; Ichinose, K. 1981. Genetic studies of origin and evolution in Trillium.1. Comparative study of morphological characters between the Japanese Trillium apetalon Makino and the North American Trillium erectum Linn. Essays Studies Tokyo Women's Chr.Coll., 31: 647-656. English summary.

Fukuda, I.; Grant, W.F. 1980. Chromosome variation and evolution in Trillium grandiflorum. Canadian J. Genetics and Cytology, 22:1 81-91.

Fukuda, I.; Grant, W.F. 1980. A comparitive study of chromosome variation between Eastern and Western North American species of Trillium IN:- Second International Congress of systematic and evolutionary biology, Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver.

Fukuda, I. 1977. Introductory remarks on population genetical view. Proc. Jap. Soc. Pl. Taxon., 3:6 3-5.

Fukuda, I.; Ito, M. 1976. A study on the abnormal forms of Trillium kamtschaticum.1. Natural population around Lake Huhren. Sci. Rep. Kushiro City Mus., Nos. 3-7: 240-241.

Fukuda, I.; Channell, R B. 1975. Distribution and evolutionary significance of chromosome variation in Trillium ovatum. Evolution, 29:2 257-266.

Fukuda, I. 1973. Comparitive study of chromosome variation in the Japanese and American Trillium species. Sci. Rep. Tokyo Woman's Coll., Nos.29-31: 361-367.

Fukuda, I. 1971. The spontaneous chromosome mutation in Trillium ovatum. CIS (chromosome inform serv). 12: 4-5.

Fukuda, I. 1970. Chromosome compositions of the southern populations in Trillium kamtschaticum. Sc. Reports Tokyo Woman's Chr. Coll., Nos.12-14: 159-174.

Fukuda, I. 1970. A new concept of species and mechanism of speciation. Proc. Jap. Soc. Pl. Tax., 2:6 75-84. English summary.

Fukuda, I. 1968. Evolutionary genetics on Trillium in Asia and North America. J. Comp. Cult. Inst.Tokyo, Woman's Coll., 26: 67-82. English summary.

Fukuda, I. 1967. The formation of subgroups by the development of inbreeding systems in a Trillium population. Evolution, 21: pp 141-147.

Fukuda, I.; Kan, E. 1966. A karyological report on the Trillium species of Ullung Island in South Korea. Syokubutsu-Syumi (Amatores Herbarii) 27:3 2-4.

Fukuda, I. 1962. Variation and evolution in natural populations of Trillium kamtschaticum Pall. Essays and studies Tokyo Women's college, 13: 91-108.

Fukuda, I. 1961. On insects visiting Trillium flowers. Essays and studies Tokyo Women's college 12: 23-34.

Fukuda, I.; Hiraizumi, Y.; Narise, T.; Kurabayashi, M. 1960. Evolution and variation in Trillium 6. Migrations among natural populations of Trillium kamtschaticum across the Ishikari depression. Evolution, 16: 224-231.

Fukuda, I. 1960. On the origin of Trillium apetalon Makino. Essays and studies Tokyo Women's college 2: 53-66. English summary.

Fukuda, I.; Kozuka, Y. 1958. Evolution and variation in Trillium 5. A list of chromosome composition in natural poulations of Trillium kamtschaticum Pall. J. Fac. Sci., Hokkaido University, 5:6 273-319.

Fukuda, N.; Imamura, N.; Saito, E.; Nohara, T.; Kawasaki, T. 1981. Steroid saponins and sapogenins of underground parts of Trillium kamtschaticum Pall. 4. Additional oligoglysides of 18 norspirostane derivatives and other steroidal constituents. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 29:2 325-335.

Gad, L.; Cruise, J. E. 1974. Trilliums and their unusual forms. Ontario Naturalist Mar.74: 32-36.

Gates, B. N. 1940. Dissemination by ants of the seeds of Trillium grandiflorum. Rhodora, 42: 194-196.

Gates, B. N. 1941. Observations in 1940 on the dissemination by ants of the seed of Trillium grandiflorum. Rhodora, 43: 206-207.

Gates, R. R. 1917. A systematic study of the north American genus Trillium, its variability and its relation to Paris and Medeola. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gdn., 4: 43-92.

Gibson, H. L. 1975. A photographic survey of Trilliums. Proc. Rochester Acad. Sci., 12:4 412-?

Gibson, H. L. 1976. Some observations on the persistence and changes in green tetralogic forms of Trillium. Proc. Rochester Acad. Sci., 13:1 11-16.

Giles, R. A.; Wilson, G. B. 1956. A Cytological and morphological study of two populations of Trillium. Cytologia, 21: 376-383.

Giles, R. A. 1955. A cytological and morphological study of two populations of Trillium grandiflorum. Ph.D. Michigan State Univ.

Gilkey, H. 1945. Trillium chloropetalum (Torr.) Howell. Oregon St. Monogr., Stud. Bot., 9: 48-51.

Glattstein, Judy. 1992. Trilliums, Wildflowers for a woodland Garden. ????

Gleason, H. A. 1906. The pedunculate species of Trillium. Bul. Torrey Bot. Club, 33: 387-396.

Gleason, H. A. 1963. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada., Hafner Publishing Co., 1: 430-434.

Godspeed, T. H.; Brandt, R. P. 1916. Notes on the Californian species of Trillium A report of the general results of field and garden studies. U. Calif. Berkeley Pub. Bot., 7: 1-24.

Godspeed, T. H.; Brandt, R. P. 1916. Notes on the Californian species of Trillium The nature and occurence of undeveloped flowers. U. Calif. Berkeley Pub. Bot., 7: 25-38.

Gotoh, K.; Stow, I. 1930. Karyologische Studien an Paris und Trillium. Jap. J. Genet., 5: 114-117.

Grant, V. 1950. The flower constancy of bees. Bot. Rev., 16: 370-398.

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